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Andrea Verlicchi

Making the web faster and more user-friendly

Responsive images, an HTML 5.1 standard

It's official. Responsive images have been a W3C recommendation since November 2016, featuring the brand new picture tag and new attributes for the img tag: srcset and sizes.

Why responsive images? #

Back in 2010, Ethan Marcotte started talking of responsive web design, an approach to web design aimed at allowing webpages to be viewed in response to the size of the browser viewport.

That was revolutionary, but suddenly we developers had a new problem to face: in a responsive website, how big should the website's image files be?

The initial approach was to use one large image for all viewport sizes, so that images looked great on large screens even if they had to be scaled down on smaller devices, but soon this turned out to be a bad practice: slower connections on mobile devices and less performing CPUs were slowing down the website and making user experience worse.

Developers then started to use javascript to pick the right image size based on the viewport, that's when scripts like picturefill came about.

But the thing is that javascript is slower than pure HTML: it must be downloaded, parsed and executed before the browser could even start downloading the images. The web needed something native to go back to defining images in the HTML to allow browsers to start downloading them as soon as possible.

That's why a group of independent designers and developers who go by the name of Responsive Images Community Group, started proposing new tags and attributes.

What are responsive images? #

"Responsive images" is the name given to the technique of defining more than one source per each image, and making browsers to download the best one, depending on the following factors:

Users have different pixel densities depending on the monitor of their device. Standard devices have a pixel density of 1, meaning the monitor has 1 device pixel per CSS pixel, while the newest HiDpi monitors - including "Retina" displays - have a higher density. For example, a pixel density of 2 means that the monitor has 2x2 device pixels per CSS pixel, and so forth.

HiDpi displays are great when rendering vectors, like fonts or SVG images. But when it comes to rendering images, browsers will just stretch the original image, making it blurry on devices that are supposed to deliver a better quality.

Supporting hiDpi displays #

The simplest of things you can do with the new srcset attribute is to support different pixel densities. You just need to specify different sources for your image, describing each one with the x descriptor, which indicates the pixel density of the image source. Like that:

<img src="shirt_300w.jpg"
  srcset="shirt_300w.jpg 1x,
          shirt_600w.jpg 2x"
  alt="A beautiful shirt"
  width="300" height="380">

In this example, we want to display an image of 300 x 380 CSS pixels. The standard density image is shirt_300w.jpg and it's described by the 1x descriptor. The double-density image is shirt_300w.jpg, and it needs to be 600 x 760 pixels.

Note: browsers that understand the new srcset attribute will ignore the src one, which is still required.

This is already a good result to deliver the best image quality to our users, but what if in our responsive layout, the image size varies depending on the available space?

Different image sizes #

Let's suppose that our image must be wide:

How do we make sure that our users always get the image size that best fits their viewport and pixel density?

We can define images of these sizes:

Density / Viewport width < 600 >= 600 >= 1200
1x 300 x 380 600 x 760 1200 x 1520
2x 600 x 760 1200 x 1520 2400 x 3040

As you can see, we're using 4 different image sizes. I would advice to name the images with their width on the name, since it's much clearer to understand.

To markup this in our HTML, we must do:

<img src="shirt_300w.jpg"
  srcset="shirt_300w.jpg 300w,
          shirt_600w.jpg 600w,
          shirt_1200w.jpg 1200w,
          shirt_2400w.jpg 2400w"
  alt="A beautiful shirt"
  sizes="(min-width: 1200px) 1200px,
         (min-width: 600px) 600px,

With this markup, the browser knows the space that the image will occupy on the screen (through sizes) and all the available image sources that we prepared for our users (through srcset).

At this point, the browser will choose what image source to download based on the information we provided and the information it knows about our user, such as screen density, cached files, connection speed, etc.

Browser support #

The srcset attribute is supported across all browsers except Internet Explorer. Fortunately, there's an official polyfill that we can use to emulate native browser behavior on legacy browsers.